A few decades after Harsha’s death (647 A.D.) many Rajput states ascended in Rajasthan and Indus plains. They fought amongst themselves and the vanquished moved to the hills with their followers, where they set up small states or principalities. These states were Kangra, Nurpur, Suket, Mandi, Kutlehar, Baghal, Bilaspur, Nalagarh, Keonthal, Dhami, Kunihar, Bushahar, Sirmour.
The small hill kingdom enjoyed a large degree of independence till the eve of Muslim invasions in northern India. States of the foothills were devastated by Muslim invaders from time to time. Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered Kangra at the beginning of the 10th century. Timur and Sikander Lodi also marched through the lower hills and captured several forts and fought many battles.
Later on as the Mughal dynasty began to break up; the rulers of the hill states took full advantage. The Katoch rulers of Kangra availed of this opportunity and Kangra regained independence status under Maharaja Sansar Chand who ruled for nearly half a century. He was one of the ablest administrators of the region. After he took formal possession of Kangra fort, Sansar Chand began to expand his territory. The states of Chamba, Suket, Mandi, Bilaspur, Guler, Jaswan, Siwan and Datarpur came under the direct or indirect control of Sansar Chand.
Gorkha & Sikh War
The Gorkhas, a martial tribe came to power in Nepal in the year 1768. They consolidated their military power and began to expand their territory. Gradually the Gorkhas annexed Sirmour and Shimla hill states. With the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa, Gorkhas laid siege to Kangra. They managed to defeat Sansar Chand, the ruler of Kangra, in 1806 with the help of many hill chiefs. However, Gorkhas could not capture Kangra fort which came under Maharaja Ranjeet Singh in 1809. After this defeat, the Gorkhas began to expand towards the south. This resulted in the Anglo-Gorkha war. They came into direct conflict with the English along the tarai belt after which the English expelled them from the hill states east of the Satluj. Thus British slowly emerged as the paramount powers in this tract.
After the Anglo-Gorkha war, the common border of the British domain and Punjab became very sensitive. Both the Sikh and English wanted to avoid a direct conflict, but after the death of Ranjit Singh, the Khalsa army fought a number of wars with the British. In 1845 when the Sikhs invaded the British territory by crossing the Satluj, the rulers of many hill states sided with the English as they were looking for an opportunity to settle scores with the former. Many of these rulers entered into secret communication with the English. After the first Anglo-Sikh war, the British did not restore the hill territory vacated by Sikhs to their original owners.
The medieval history of Himachal Pradesh can be characterized into 4 ranges. they are Mahmud Ghaznavi assault, Tuglaqs, intrusion of Taimur-lung and Mughal rule. we are able to talk about one after the other as takes after.
(I) Mahmud Ghaznavi: Mahmud Ghaznavi had attacked India seventeen times. in the wake of beating Anandpal in 1009 A.D., he attacked Nagarkot and plundered tremendous treasury. Nagarkot changed into ruled by Turks until 1043 A.D and after that Tomar Raja Mahipal of Delhi finished the control of Turks from Nagarkot. Mahmud Ghaznavi could not lead numerous parts of Kangra barring Nagarkot till 1023 A.D. After the dying of Raja Trilochan pal and his son Bhim pal, Kangra went under the govern of Turks in 1026 A.D.
(ii) Tuglaqs: Muhammad Gauri, Slave Dynasty (1206-1290) and Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320) did no longer provide cautious consideration the slope states. In century 12th, numerous Rajputs from the Plains (Chauhan, Chandel, Sen, Tomar, and Pawar) constructed up several states in the strong slopes of Himachal.
1. Muhammad Bin Tuglaq: in the time of 1337 A.D., Muhammad Bin Tuglaq (1325-1351) drove an armed pressure to crush Raja Prithvi Chand of Nagarkot.
2. Firoz Shah Tuglaq: preserving in mind the give up purpose to reveal a thing or to Raja Rup Chand of Kangra, Firoz Shah Tuglaq attacked Nagarkot and encompassed the fortification with his armed pressure in 1361 A.D. we will discover references of this assault in ‘Tarikh-I-Firoz-Farishta’ and ‘Tarikh-I-Firoz-Shahi’. Raja Rup Chand and Firoz Shah got here to an assertion in which Raja Rup Chand acknowledged the suzerainty of the closing referred to. After the assertion in 1365, Firoz Shah went to Jawalamukhi and took away with him 1300 books of Sanskrit, which got transformed into Persian via a prominent Persian author ‘Ajjudin Khalid Khani’ and named the book ‘Dalai-I-Firozshahi’. After the passing of Raja Rup Chand in 1375 A.D., his baby Sagar Chand surrendered the position of authority.
(iii) Invasion of Taimur-lung: In 1398 A.D., Mongols attacked Kangra inside the administration of Taimur-lung. Amid this intrusion, Raja of Kangra became Megh Chand. Taimur attacked Shivalik locale at the same time as taking flight from the Kangra in 1399 A.D. Amid the intrusion of Taimur, leader of Hindur (display day Nalagarh) become Alam Chand, who helped Taimur and as a consequence, Taimur drove ahead without hurting Hindur. Taimur likewise attacked Nurpur and Sirmaur which turned into restrained by Ratan Chand.
(iv) Mughal Reign:
1. Babur: In 1525 A.D., Babur set up his station (Chowki) at Malaut near Kangra.
2. Akbar: In 1526 A.D., Akbar despatched his armed force to get Sikander Shah when you consider that he had a companionship with Bhakth Mal of Nurpur. With a particular cease purpose to set up suzerainty over royal slope states, Akbar used to hold their kids as prisoners in his court. One such prisoner made by Akbar was Raja Jay Chand. Bidhi Chand baby of Raja Jay Chand broke out into the disobedience to Akbar with the help of Raja Takht Mal of Nurpur. Akbar despatched his fantastically successful jewel Birbal along Kuli Khan to smother the insubordination. In 1572 A.D., Akbar special his income serve Todar Mal to set up Royal area in the slope states. Regal domestic had in it 66 towns of Kangra and Rihlu Chheri, Pathiar and Dharon regions of Chamba. Bidhi Chand progressed in the direction of turning into Raja after the passing of his dad Jai Chand in 1585 A.D. Raja Bidhi Chand saved his child Trilok Chand as a prisoner inside the court docket of Mughal Emperor Akbar. Raja Pratap Singh Varman of Chamba and Dharm Prakash (1578-70 A.D.) of Sirmaur were the friends of Akbar.
3. Jahangir: Jahangir situated on the position of royalty in 1605 A.D. Trilok Chand turned into the Raja of Kangra after the passing of his dad Raja Bidhi Chand in 1605 A.D. In 1615 A.D., Jahangir despatched his companions Raja Surajmal of Nurpur (Dhameri) and Sheik Farid Murtaza Khan to seize Kangra, but some debate broke out between the two. The association to trap Kangra changed into deferred after the passing of Farid Murtaza Khan. once more in the 12 months 1617 A.D., Jahangir sent his companions Raja Surajmal of Nurpur (show day Dhameri) and Shah Quli Khan Muhammad Taki to seize Kangra. same tale become rehashed as a few dialogue broke out among Surajmal and Shan Quli Khan and eventually Shan Quli Khan became requested that by way of Jahangir withdraw back. Raja Surajmal broke out into the disobedience to Mughals. Jahangir sent his exceptionally efficient men Raja Roy Vikramjeet and Abdul Aziz to smother the insubordination. Raja Surajmal fled away to Chamba and took safe haven in the fortification of Mankot and Taragarh. Raja Pratap Verman of Chamba gave him a plan to surrender yet he exceeded on in 1619 A.D. before he ought to impact himself to surrender to Jahangir. Kangra castle went under the Mughals in 1620 A.D. Raja Jagat Singh extra youthful sibling of Raja Surajmal helped the Mughals to catch Kangra stronghold.
Kangra stronghold was caught by means of Mughals under the authority of Nawab Ali Khan and dominated until 1783 A.D. Jahangir went by way of Dhameri (introduce day Nurpur) in 1622 A.D. Furthermore, renamed Dhameri as Nurpur before the name of his better half ‘Nur-Jahan‘. Jahangir developed a Mosque inside Kangra fortress and named one of the entryways of Kangra fortification as ‘Jahangiri Darwaza’. Amid the guideline of Jahangir, the ‘skirmish of Dhalog‘ changed into battled between Raja Janardhan of Chamba and Raja Jagat Singh in which Jagat Singh rose successfully. Chamba became led by way of Raja Jagat Singh for 2 many years (1623 A.D to 1643 A.D). Raja Budhi Prakash of Sirmaur turned into the contemporary of Jahangir. the main Mughal Kiledaar of Kangra fortification turned into Nawab Ali Khan.
4. Shah Jahan: Nawab Asadullah Khan and coach Quli Khan have been the two unmistakable Mughal Kiledaars of Kangra stronghold amid the rule of Shah Jahan. Mentor Quli Khan served for multi-year as the Mughal Kiledaar of Kangra fortification. Raja Mandhanta Prakash of Sirmaur turned into the present day of Shah Jahan. He helped Mughals various occasions amid the Gharwal crusades.
5. Aurangzeb: Sayeed Husain Khan, Hasan Abdullah Khan and Nawab Sayeed Khalilullah Khan were the boss Mughals Kiledaars of Kangra fortification amid the rule of thumb of Aurangzeb. Raja Subhag Prakash of Sirmaur was the current of Aurangzeb. Raja Chattar Singh of Chamba declined to acknowledge the requests of Aurangzeb in which he asked to spoil every single Hindu sanctuary in Chamba. He made a union with the leaders of Guler, Basholi, and Jammu and beat Mirza Riyaz Begh a Mughal Kiledaar of Punjab and took his regions over from him.
Fall of Mughals and Ghamand Chand:
Fall of Mughals started after the passing of Aurangzeb. Ahmad Shah Durrani assaulted the area of Punjab ten instances between 1748 A.D and 1788 A.D. Taking leverage of Durrani’s attacks; Raja Ghamand Chand captured areas of Kangra and Doab. Kangra stronghold was nevertheless beneath the rule of Mughals and the final Mughal Kiledaar of the citadel was Nawab Saif Ali Khan. In 1759 A.D., Ahmad Shan Durrani exchanged Jalandhar doab to Raja Ghamand Chand. The zones between River Satluj and Ravi changed into the imposing commercial enterprise model of Raja Ghamand Chand.